dda mimarlık hizmetleri   Ahşap Sandalye

Wooden Materials in Architecture in 41 Questions

We explained the use, types, protection and classification processes of traditional materials and wooden materials in architecture, supported by questions. I would like to thank Lecturer İLHAN KOÇ, whose notes I benefited from, for his contribution and work.

What Would an Ideal Building Be Like?

  • Purposeful
  • Multifunctional
  • Trustworthy
  • Economic
  • Aesthetic

What are Traditional Building Materials?

  • Wood
  • Stone
  • Brick
  • Adobe
  • Lime
  • Plaster
  • Confined Concrete

What is the Expansion Order Regarding the Structure, From Macromos to Micromoses?

  • Macrosmos
  • World
  • Continent
  • Country
  • City
  • Urban District
  • Building Complex (Building Island)
  • Building
  • Space / Building Element
  • Construction Material (Component, Part, Material)
  • Microsmos

What are the Factors Affecting Structural Design?

  1. Atmospheric Factors
  2. Mechanical Factors
  3. Material Properties
  4. User Requests
  5. Legal Responsibilities

What are Atmospheric Properties?

  • Water (Rainfall)
  • Heat
  • Air Currents
  • Solar Radiation

What are the Mechanical Properties?

  • Static (Dead) Loads
  • Dynamic (Moving) Loads

What are the Material Properties?

  • Physical Property
  • Mechanical Property
  • Technological Feature
  • Chemical Property
  • Economical and Availability
  • Aesthetics, Surface Properties, Color and Texture

How Should a Country Be Planned According to Legal Obligations?

  • City
  • Urban District
  • It is built as a Building Complex (Building Island) and is planned in accordance with the Zoning Laws, Zoning Regulations and District Zoning Regulations.

What are Building Material Products (Elements)?

  1. Equipment
  2. Piece
  3. Component
  4. Workman
  5. Venue Unit (Unit)

What are the Reasons Related to Construction and Building Materials?

  • Increasing building deficit
  • Shortening structure and decision-making time
  • Increased availability of building materials
  • Building materials made by different manufacturers

What are the User Related Reasons?

  • Diversification of user actions
  • Change, increase and complexity of needs
  • Changes in social structure

*The force acting on the unit area of ​​a material is called stress.

*Wooden material is warm and beautiful, but it also burns, rots and is flimsy.

*Wood has met the basic needs of human beings such as heating, lighting and shelter.

How to Examine Tree Species Botanically?

Conifers = Evergreen, Gymnosperm, Conifer

Broad Leaves = Deciduous, Angiosperms, Conifers

How is Classification Done in Wooden Materials in General?

  • a) Softwoods
  • b) Medium Hard
  • c) Trees Hardwoods

Where are Coniferous Trees Mostly Used in Construction and Why?

Pines: In parts open to external influences; It is used in door and window joinery.

Others: Used in interior areas.

Why: It is softer, easier to process and cheaper.

Pines: Scots Pine, Black Pine, Red Pine, Pistachio Pine

Others: Fir, Juniper, Spruce, Cedar

Where Are Broad Leaf Trees Mostly Used in Buildings and Why?

It is used in flooring, wall materials and furniture.

Why: It is harder, stronger, more beautiful and brighter.

Although oak and beech are mostly used in the building, there are also species such as hornbeam, chestnut, alder and poplar.

How to Classify Trees According to Their Hardness?

  • Hardwoods: Black oak, oak, beech, boxwood, ash, maple, walnut
  • Medium Hard Trees: Pine, larch, red pine, elm, chestnut, hazelnut
  • Softwoods: Spruce, poplar, linden, fir, cherry, alder

How to Examine the Physical Parts of the Tree and the Log?

Trees consist of roots, trunk and branches. A log is examined by sectioning in 3 directions. These;

  1. Diameter Section (Cross Section)
  2. Core Section (Vertical Section)
  3. Vessel Section (Vertical Section)

What is Found in the Diameter Section of the Log From Inside to Outside?

  1. Self and Self rays
  2. Wood and Year rings
  3. Cambium
  4. Shell (Inner shell, Peel)
  5. Outer Shell

What are the Substances in the Chemical Structure of Wood?

  • Cellulose: Provides Flexibility.
  • Ligyin: Provides strength, strength and ability to stand upright.
  • Pectin: Provides gelling ability.

*When the gel absorbs water, the molecules open and the mass swells. When it dries, shrinkage occurs. This is called shrinkage in materials science. The continuation of both events is called the operation of the tree.

*The walls of the fibers are built like bricks with particles called micelles.

What Does the Strength of the Tree Depend on?

  • To the acting load; It depends on its character and direction.
  • Features wood; It depends on fiber direction, moisture (water) amount, density and defects.

What are the Strength Types?

  • Do not Pull
  • Pressure
  • Bending
  • Torsion
  • Cutting

What is the Relationship Between Strength and Stress?

It will vary depending on the direction of the fibers and the process performed.

  • When the fiber direction is parallel to the fibers, when tension is applied, the tension increases and the strength increases.
  • When the fiber direction is parallel to the fibers, when pressure is applied, the tension increases and the strength increases.
  • When the fiber direction is parallel to the fibers, when pressure is applied, the tension increases and the strength increases slightly.

What is the Relationship Between Strength and Water?

  • In case of bending, the strength decreases as the amount of water increases.
  • As the amount of water increases under parallel pressure, the strength decreases.

What are the Beauty Elements of Trees?

  • Colour
  • Tissue
  • Brightness
  • Smell

What is the Relationship Between Trees and Water?

  • Completely Dry Wood 0%
  • Full Age Tree 150-250%
  • Air Dry Wood 5-20%
  • Fresh Tree 80-100%
  • Fiber Saturation 30-33%

What are the Factors That Make Trees Defective?

  • Climatic Causes
  • Topographic condition of the place where the tree is located
  • Insects and Fungi
  • People and Animals

What are the Types of Growth Defects in Trees?

  • Spinning Growth (Astringency)
  • Bifurcation
  • Double Essence
  • Slipped Essence
  • Lumpiness
  • Knots
  • Cracks

What are the Causes of Wood Deterioration?

  • Physical Cause: It is the operation of the tree.
  • Biological Cause: Insects and Fungi.

What is the Relationship Between Wood and Fungus?

Fungi are divided into two: those that adhere to the surface and those that enter the body.

Those that adhere to the surface do not spoil the chemical structure because they absorb the sap.

Those that enter the body pierce the cell wall and withdraw the cell plasma, initiating decay.

How Does Fungal Destruction Become Inevitable?

If 3 situations occur simultaneously, inevitable damage will occur on the wood.

  • 0-38 °C temperature
  • Humidity between 30-60%
  • Oxygen

What are the Ways to Protect Wood?

  • Drying
  • Puttying
  • Painting or varnishing
  • Disinfestation against insects and pests
  • Gas disinfection

At this point, if the tree is to be protected, it should either be dried (<30% moisture) or kept in water.

What are the Types of Drying Wood Using Natural Methods?

  • Block Stack
  • Crate Stack
  • Cross Stack
  • Triangle Stack
  • Shear Stack

What are the Benefits and Harms of Natural Drying for Wood?


  • There is no need for a large facility.
  • Wood color is better preserved.
  • It is suitable for lumber to be used outdoors.
  • It is economical and easy.


  • It binds long time and capital.
  • It cannot be dried to the desired humidity.
  • There may be fungal and insect attack.
  • It takes up space.

What are the Methods of Drying Wood Using Artificial Methods?

  • Hot weather
  • High Electrical Frequency
  • Infrared Radiation
  • Vacuum Drying

What are the Benefits and Harms of Artificial Drying for Wood?


  • It happens in a short time.
  • Fungal effect is prevented.
  • Capital does not remain tied up.
  • It is reduced to the desired humidity.
  • Drier timbers are obtained.


  • A large facility is needed.
  • It is much more expensive than natural drying.

What are the Types of Wooden Materials?

  1. Cover Board
  2. Sew (Sash)
  3. Beam
  4. Staff (Slitting)
  5. Lath
  6. Plank
  7. Wood
  8. Slat

What Defects Does Wood, an Anisotropic Material, Create in Internal Stress?

  • Dimensions change
  • Distortion
  • Bending
  • Slouching
  • Cracking

*Shrinkage is especially greater in the direction tangential to the year rings.

*The hump of wood always occurs from the bark to the core.

What are the Features of First Class Wood?

  • There will be no rot, cracks, worms or holes.
  • There will be no cutting or size errors.
  • Annual ring thicknesses may exceed 4 mm in at most half of the cross section.
  • The slope of the shrinkage crack towards the longitudinal edge can be at most 10%.
  • The curvature error per meter cannot exceed 2.5 mm.
  • There can be a maximum of 2 corner chamfers in the cross section.

What are Artificial Wooden Materials in Terms of Their Formation?

  • Veneer Sheets
  • Ply records
  • Counter tables
  • Wood planks
  • Pressed solid woods

What are the Types of Uses of Natural Wood in Construction?

  1. As a carrier element
  2. As coating
  3. As joinery element
  4. As mold

What are the Benefits of Wooden Material?

  1. It is a lightweight but high-strength material.
  2. It is easy to obtain.
  3. It is easy to process.
  4. Its insulation value is higher than main building materials.
  5. It keeps you warm in winter and cool in summer.
  6. It has a nailing feature and can be disassembled and reused.
  7. It is earthquake resistant.
  8. It has a long resistance to fire.

There are no comments on this topic yet. Would you like to be the first to comment?

Leave a comment too